Amrish Shah

Amrish Shah, of Indian origin, born in Africa, a British national and now residing in The Netherlands, is a seasoned and senior finance leader with over 20 years of financial management experience in international organizations. Some of the companies he has worked for include Unilever, O'Neill Group, Staples, Royal Wessanen, Kao and he is currently working in a senior FP&A transformation capacity at EndemolShine. 

A qualified Management Accountant with CIMA, he has held regional finance leadership positions since 2001, based out of The Netherlands. He has held both staff and line roles, managing teams of up to 40 people. He has a clear belief in the value of finance at both strategic and operational levels to the organisation and is passionate about, amongst others, organisation decision making, organisation culture, high performing teams, leadership in general, organisation and finance transformation, change management and talent management. 

In his experience, the perception (and in many cases the reality) of finance as a backward looking, administrative, reporting and compliance driven function belongs firmly in the past. A fit for purpose modern finance function demands the requisite creativity to spur Innovation from within finance in order to support organisations towards more sustainable and robust performance management and increasing levels of both customer and employee engagement. And that is a journey that he remains excited about ever day.

 

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The Changing Mandate of FP&A: How Transformation Dovetails with Managing Daily Operations

By Amrish Shah, Snr Finance & Operations Director, The Netherlands

All functions have operational deliverables, with perhaps a very few exceptions like a Corporate Strategy function. Given this “daily business” that has to be conducted, it is logical that when attempting change risk rears its considerable head. The greater the change impact and ambition, the bigger the risk has to be taken into account on how to guarantee “business continuity”. FP&A is not exempt from this. 

Big 6 of FP&A

What are the daily operations in FP&A? 

The operational delivery of FP&A revolves around the following big blocks:

  • Performance Management and Measurement
    • Looking at the financial development of the business against objectives, including underlying business drivers of performance and KPIs
  • Business and Financial Planning
    • Translating agreed business objectives into forward-looking business and financial plans
  • Strategy
    • Playing an active role in strategy development and resource allocation decision to execute strategy
  • Decision Support
    • In essence, getting into modelling the financial implications of operational resource commitments
  • Investment Analysis
    • Providing tools to conduct rigorous business case analyses for bigger, material, complex investments 
  • Business Risk and Opportunity management & Control
    • Controlling the follow up of existing risks and opportunities brought forward and monitoring for potential future risks and opportunities. Ensuring that key business controls are in place for key business processes – for example, pricing

The Transformation Imperative

Shifting now to change, what are the tensions driving the imperative for FP&A to undergo some fundamental transformation? The key imperative is the changing mandate of finance. This is driven by the changing external landscape that most organisations find themselves in as well as the increased opportunity that technology acceleration provides. This technology opportunities are in the areas of Cloud-based services, Data Analytics, Visualisation, Cognitive Modelling and many others.

To summarise briefly the imperative for finance is to play a more impactful role which moves from FP&A focused on reporting and working more in isolation to providing business solutions whilst partnering with the business. As the following table illustrates:

From the Old World to the New One

The Challenges - Flying the FP&A Plane

All sounds simple and straightforward, right? No. And the simple reason is that, historically, daily FP&A operations have tended to reside on the left-hand side. Transformation aspires to live in the right-hand dwelling.

This illustrates the challenges of transforming an FP&A service whilst still having the responsibility to deliver operationally. In the end, we want to effectively “transform the operations”. The operational deliverables of FP&A are not likely to change materially in intention. The biggest change imperative is to change how this is to be delivered and therefore, what kind of culture is required from an FP&A function and what kind of talent is needed.

In this respect, the analogy of a plane in mid-air is illustrative. The plane is a bit old and there is less than 90% confidence amongst crew whether everything is working as it should. Secondly, the journey the passengers enjoy whilst on board is less than optimal. Which means that when the destination is reached (no doubt late), the passengers alight in not the most optimal of moods – whereas they should be thinking of what a wonderful experience they have had as the first step on their journey.

Both the parts of the plane need to change (the what) as well as how the overall experience is provided (the how).

The 3 Cs to Address

Is the incumbent organization capable of delivering this change? I see 3 big challenges that create some doubt:

  • Capacity
    • The current organisation – precisely because things don’t work optimally – are busy with workarounds and just running to stand still. This is the overwhelming feeling of the operational swamp where nothing seems to come easy. But, critically, this is at least a known quantity, however frustrating.
  • Competence
    • The kind of skills that have been historically hired to survive the above environment is unlikely, both technically and managerial wise, to be able to deal with let alone lead the change initiative required.
  • Credibility
    • The customers (in this case the paying passengers) have also in many cases been “resigned” to what they have been used to experience. Therefore, it is also a challenge for them to imagine let alone actively support and embrace a different experience.

Checklist for success

If change is not an option what can increase our chances of successfully transforming the plane mid-air? Whilst by no means an exhaustive list, I believe the following is important:

  • Secure and drive commitment from the FP&A leadership and a critical mass of business leadership.
  • Make the critical people changes before starting where the key pain points and change impact are likely to be.
  • Enrol people in the organisation who are energised by change (frustrated by the status quo) and make it worth their while.
  • In particular, help free up their time to spend a material time in design and implementation of the changes. Do this by being uncompromising about stop / transfer lists.
  • Re-organise work by creating a dedicated focus.
  • Be the “naysayer” to the organisation about further operational requests where possible in order to protect time for a change.
  • Encourage every opportunity for continuous improvement and recognise and celebrate this. There is little risk to this as every improvement is likely to help facilitate the big changes to come.
  • Manage stakeholder communication actively. This is likely to be a bumpy road, not just on the change side, but also on the operations side. Turbulence is to be expected.
  • Get serious about documenting knowledge of the as-is situation. Especially in FP&A where the work done is of a more knowledge-intensive nature.
  • Manage transition risks actively – do not under any circumstances plan for overly ambitious resource needs (read: short cuts). This extends to parallel running.
  • Be honest and communicate both the struggles and the successes – linking everything back to the change imperative. Why is this necessary?

Summary

In the end, the need to transform FP&A operations is in the interest of the business, not for FP&A itself. Nevertheless, the business will not thank the function for changing in a way that has brought the operational needs into danger. It is possible to pull off such a balancing act by addressing explicitly the challenges related to capacity, competence and credibility if approached in a transparent, structured, disciplines and consequent way.

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The Essentials of a Successful Finance Transformation

By Amrish Shah, Snr Finance & Operations Director, The Netherlands

Why is finance transformation high on the agenda?

Finance transformation is high on the agenda for the majority of finance departments. What is driving this? There are a number of push factors that are important.

Firstly, the change in the external environment especially in the nature and direction of competition. Technology is acting as a great leveler and lowering barriers to entry, bringing price transparency, generating unprecedented levels of analytic computational capabilities and dangling the temptation of automation as a key to unlock efficiencies.

Secondly, the customer and consumer are increasingly changing their demands and purchasing behaviours.

Thirdly, the employee experience itself is also changing as we see generational shifts around what creates meaning at work. All of this has driven the expectation that finance adapts itself to the demands of the new business realities – but at the same time, sometimes even ahead of the curve, but definitely not too late.

Is there something special about finance transformation?

The essence of finance is value preservation, protection and creation. In order to do all three data is required and needs to be seen as a core organization asset. However, value is not extracted from data unless decision making exists and is of sufficient quality and timeliness. In this sense, I would argue, that finance transformation is something special – something that cannot happen in isolation from a much bigger and wider business transformation. Changing the way data is created, maintained, used and decommissioned in order to support better decisions and the governance around this impacts every organizational function and business line.

What are the benefits of finance transformation?

There are several obvious benefits to a finance transformation done well. Amongst others:

  • An increase in effectiveness – by being more of a strategic contributor to the organization health
  • An increase in efficiency – by providing the more process and transaction elements of the finance services in a speedier, frictionless manner and, critically, with a significant decrease in errors
  • An increase in engagement – by building a more tech and process savvy finance org, which by complementing with meaningful and impactful roles can be critical in upgrading talent,
  • A catalyst to broader business transformation – as mentioned before, especially if finance transformation touches data management and decision making, it can provide an enormous benefit to the rest of the organization in becoming more focused, agile and flexible

What are the key considerations?

The first consideration for me in any finance transformation would be the Service model choices that have to be made. Second would be the organization design. By service delivery model, we talk about really deep-diving into what key services Finance will provide in the future and how do they differ from now. The organization design would then tackle the elements of how that is to be provided and through what kind of capabilities. Key questions to be asked here are to what extent to centralize or to not centralize, what are the process, systems and control implications, what are the capabilities required of each (key) role and how the proposed services and organization map into the current or future business structure. 

In this sense, the clarity of context will play an important role as will the extent of appetite for change from the organization perspective. Therefore, the change story assumes a very important role as does the governance, sequencing, organization readiness aspects, change management and risk management. Most of these are similar factors that inform most transformations.

What are the key watch-outs?

There are a number of – perhaps obvious watch-outs in terms of designing and successfully implementing finance transformations. Amongst others:

  • The inspiring vision – the why, if this is missing, as always, it is harder to mobilise enthusiasm and commitment, 
  • Change capacity, not fully understanding the extent of the change impact and the support needed to make the change happen,
  • Underestimating the operational agenda, especially if in an environment where the performance is under challenge,
  • Transformation design, splitting design and execution too much, for example in not involving those who have to live with design choices to be part of the design, 
  • Technology as a panacea, looking at finance transformations as something that can be solved by technology and technology only,
  • Failing in data space, not addressing the fundamental health of data management from an end to end perspective,
  • Failing in process space, not linking the enabling role of sound processes versus the disruption that badly designed processes can give to the service delivery model,
  • Taking shortcuts on resources, as always being too optimistic of how much can be achieved by how few,
  • Flexible time, imagining that time can be created out of nowhere allowing people to manage transformation in addition to operational duties,
  • Establishing baselines, not able to establish the baseline achievements pre-transformation, in order to be able to measure progress post-transformation

How can technology help support transformation?

Although I stated earlier that technology can never be seen as a panacea for finance transformations, it is an integral part of finance transformations. It is hard to imagine a transformed finance function without a step-change in the technologies used to support the chosen service delivery. Whether this is process automation technologies, deep analytic technologies, collaboration technologies, visualization technologies, predictive modelling and algorithmic technologies and so on and on. What will be key will be to assess which tools are required for what purpose. One other point is important. The introduction of technologies that either support or are part of a transformed operation does not need to be an “all-in” bet. Judicious use of pilot / use case studies should be considered.

Summary

In many ways, finance transformation is no different from any other transformation. However, given that finance transformation tends to address deeply rooted data and decision issues and tends to be at the forefront of leveraging upcoming technologies, it can serve as very positive support and catalyst for broader organization transformation. This link needs to be positively addressed and all the possible causes of what could derail such a transformation should be considered.

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CFO as Architect of Value

By Amrish Shah, Head of FP&A at Endemol Shine Group

 

What is different now – why is there a call for CFO to step up?

The challenges of running a modern business get tougher and tougher. Mainly externally driven challenges including regulation, increases in business complexity for example in the level of competition, the nature of competition, a more complex global supply chain, increases in the speed of change, in no small measure driven by the acceleration in computing and digital technologies. All this leads to a more uncertain and more volatile business environment.

How was the CFO looked at before and what does she look like tomorrow?

Prior to the world described above, a CFO could reasonably expect to have a fairly mundane life making sure that the numbers are correct and reported accurately and that the internal control environment was sound. In other words, as an oversimplification for sure, the CFO was making sure the books were okay. Now that has changed. CFOs are increasingly being asked to provide a lead in helping the organization make big, strategic decisions around an increasingly uncertain future. They are expected to, overnight, have fit for purpose management information and control systems in place whilst they deal with old, antiquated legacy issues in both. And, they are expected to nurture a very different finance talent organization, one that takes into account the changing expectations of motivation drivers of people from different generations as well as building a tech-savvy finance organization. An organization that challenges and cajoles and helps navigate to the future.

Why an architect?

The fundamental nature of a CFO’s role has changed from one of maintenance to building and developing. This requires much of what an architect does. Looking at what is the problem to solve, design thinking, choice-making, building, testing, deploying and evolving to stay fit for purpose.

Why value?

The nature of value and how it is recognized has changed and is changing materially. Before it was much more tangible, how much less so. Future value is also inherently more uncertain. Markets more complex so not just creating value but capturing it is key as well as then holding onto it (protecting, preserving). In the past, the CFO agenda was much more geared towards protecting and preserving present value. Now it is much more about creating future value and, of course, capturing it.

The big 5

There are 5 areas in which CFOs can help design, lead and drive value management for an organization in these times.

  • Volatility

Volatility needs to be actively managed. This requires the ability to predict & prepare. It requires a greater focus on building process excellence and building greater organization awareness of risk. It requires a mindset of being resolute and focused amidst much noise both externally and internally. Above all, it requires an eye for helping build underlying organization health and not just (short term) results. Technologies that help build more robust driver-based forecasting can be of great help.

  • Complexity

Complexity needs to be navigated. This requires the drive to standardize and simplify. It requires a focus on managing across internal organization interfaces, breaking silos, sharpening governance and reducing bureaucracy. It requires a mindset of flexibility. Driving agility through, for example, an operating model of shared business services. Process automation and workflow and collaboration enhancing technologies can be of great help.

  • Value

Value needs to be architected. This requires a focus on both effectiveness and efficiency. It requires a shift of focus from mere cost cutting to freeing up investment for growth, to focus on the quality of revenue management and gross margin expansion. It requires a move away from P&L focus only to Balance Sheet and Cash Flow. It requires serious cognitive chops. Fundamentally, it is about designing and engineering the primary decision-making processes in the organization. Technologies that can support clear decision-making processes by providing learning that improves the quality of the decisions made can help greatly here. Machine Learning technologies have some clear potential in this space.

  • Transformation

Transformation needs to be driven. Not just functional but, most likely, business-wide. This is likely to come in the form of both digital and data. This requires not only having a finance technology strategy but a clear focus on people and capabilities first. It requires the business to fundamentally shift to viewing and managing data as a core asset and therefore building a culture that focuses on decisions and the data required to support decision making is critical. This requires a clear growth mindset, rooted in possibilities and experimenting and learning. Technologies that will help build such a data-obsessed and digital culture could include the likes of mobile, cloud, social media and big data analytics.

  • Strategic Alignment

Strategic alignment needs to be fostered. This requires both influence and impact. It requires a laser-like focus on the financial and talent implication of big needle-moving decisions. And, then the ability to shift and allocate resources accordingly. It needs the CFO to be a credible business partner to the CEO and, along with the CEO and CHRO providing the ultimate oversight on organization health and resource allocation. This aspect requires a clear holistic perspective. Technologies that help model out big play strategic scenarios can be of use here.

Summary

In the past volatility would have been minimal and predictable, whatever complexity that existed would have been internal at best, value was often defined in the short term and was about protecting the present rather than creating the future, transformation was a word not even dreamed up yet and strategic alignment was less relevant in a more top-down driven environment. All of these have changed. This places an unprecedented level of change on the expectations of a CFO. The ability to address the five areas highlighted above by leading change, leveraging technology, building talent and forcing the organization to become more data, decision, learning and process-focused provides a perfect opportunity for CFOs to showcase the long-term value creation impact of a truly modern finance function.
 

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Business Cases and Short-Termism

By Amrish Shah, Head of FP&A at Endemol Shine Group

FP&A Tags: 

What do we mean by a business case?

By a business case we mean a business projection with an accompanying financial projection of future cashflows. Normally, these are linked to complex, multi-year, multi-geography projects. The basic idea is that the business case highlights the key assumptions that would need to hold true for the financial projections (and, therefore, a positive financial return) to materialize. Good examples would be an acquisition, building new production capacity, launching a new brand or product category.

What do we mean by short-termism?

By short-termism we mean the prioritization of business achievements, outcomes and, therefore, financial returns in the short term as opposed to the long term. Short term here can be imagined to be within the coming 12 months.

A typical situation

Imagine a typical situation where a business case is set ready for the final go / no go decision. The team has done all the work and has been frantically up all night tweaking the final presentation. In the allocated one-hour meeting with several executives all responsible for the affected areas, a 50+ PowerPoint deck is waded through. In the end, there are one or two questions on the timeline or on something else trivial. And then a nod and it’s all over. The team breathe a sigh of relief. The meeting disbands.

Digging a little deeper

So, what is really happening here? This is a carefully choreographed theatre with a process designed to minimize risk (also personally) and to make it easy for the decision-makers to approve safe bets. It is an environment that feels entirely benign and devoid of stress or tension. If there had been any uncertainty beforehand, it has all been massaged away with a few individual one-on-one “stakeholder” calls in the previous few days.

So what? Should we care?

Yes, we absolutely should. Because the underlying dynamics painted above create an environment where ideas that could be transformative never see the light of day. The process and tools designed with good intent many many years ago when the world was much simpler, the competitive landscape was more stable and where the scarce resource was financial capital, end up favouring the present to too high a degree at the expense of the future. In other words, it is likely to lead to incrementalism rather than boldness.

And yet, if we approached our own lives in such a manner we would never invest in the long term, what we do all the time. We invest in our future economic well-being through a long-term bet on education or in our physical well-being and health through exercise and diet. This is no guarantee of success, but we take it on our common sense and, yes, a little faith that these things are worth something to us for which we want to avoid regret later on.

What can be done to guard against this?

I believe there are 5 main areas where we can help drive a better perspective on business cases.

  • We need to encourage a different mindset.

There is a need to encourage a growth versus fixed mindset. In particular that more uncertainty creates more opportunities rather than less. A mindset of “what got us here (safe/incremental) won’t necessarily get us there (bold/transformative)". This requires embracing uncertainty, risk and being prepared to be more ready to adapt as conditions unfold. If this mindset shift does not occur within decision-makers (and only at the project team level) than no material change will take place.

  • We need to make decisions more fact-based.  

This means subjecting the creation and testing of the key assumptions to a more scientific process. Concretely, acknowledging the quality of the hypothesis underpinning these assumptions. It means also that the decision-makers need to make clear that a clear success factor is for the project team via the business case to increase their level of confidence in the key assumptions made. And, that this would form the bulk of the questions being asked in any meeting.

  • We need decision-makers trained to be sharper about technical areas.

In order for the decision-makers to be able to credibly increase their confidence, there needs to be a better grasp of underlying technical knowledge that is relevant to the business proposition in question. This could be related to science, to sustainability, to external market drivers, to competitive dynamics, to regulatory issues, to cost of financing and so forth. Because this is where assumptions have to be rigorously challenged, also about uncertainty, risk and learning options.

  • We need to strengthen the process.

Some concrete ways would be to ask for a pre-mortem (where a fast-forward to evaluating a failure of the project is simulated). Another way could be to build in a cost for short-termism where immediate returns are relatively higher taxed. Another idea would be to build radical, transformative (what-if) scenarios as part of the initial brief and to build in any decision weighting / choice making framework elements that value taking a calculated risk as long as there are learning and insight.

  • We need to get serious about learning and evaluating

And talking, finally, of learning, we need to look at a business case as an initial business case and when doing any post mortems pay attention to whether the assumptions have changed for good reasons (the development of the uncertainty or unknown) versus bad reasons (unchallenged, poorly constructed assumptions, a failure to take something able to be modelled into account).

Summary and role of technology

Technology can help greatly in enhancing the robustness of business cases. Machine Learning and Predictive Algorithms can churn out better quality outcomes. Cognitive intelligence software can bring in a much wider set of (relevant) external data that can be used to enhance the drivers of the modelling. Business cases are only as good as their assumptions and these have tended to border on safety, incrementalism and therefore risk short-sightedness. With a radical overhaul of the process, a redefinition of what success is and the use of technology better, this can be changed.

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A 5-stage Approach to Know-How in FP&A

By Amrish Shah, Head of FP&A at Endemol Shine Group

 

The essence of the FP&A role is about helping to enhance the decision quality of the organisation. It measures this by reporting on, analysing and planning for the financial performance of the organisation. And it does this by partnering effectively with the business. 

WHAT 

FP&A does tend to revolve around the following:

  • Performance Management and Measurement
  • Business and Financial Planning
  • Strategy
  • Decision Support
  • Investment Analysis.

Increasingly technology solutions can be used to provide faster, deeper insights from these tasks. An example would be workflow solutions that support more timely posting of invoices thus allowing for an easier accruals process which in turn allows FP&A more confidence in the results and more time to analyse variances and consequences. Another example is the use of dynamic and powerful predictive models that can much easier spit out a baseline financial plan based on a larger quantity of business drivers.

This article focuses on HOW FP&A practitioners could approach their work.

I define 5 main phases that FP&A practitioners can use to approach their work.

  • The Planning phase
  • The Information phase
  • The Analysis phase
  • The Business Partnering phase
  • The Controlling phase

Let’s look at each one in turn.

The Planning Phase

Within this one, we can define 3 more concrete steps

  • Scoping – the initial scoping of the request including deliverables.
  • Clarifying – an underestimated element. By forcing oneself to think about what may not be clear or is uncertain, it forces critical thinking which often leads to a clearer brief.
  • Committing – establishing a more detailed plan of action with detailed steps, milestones and timelines.

The Information Phase

In this phase, the work begins.

  • Gathering –  identifying and collecting the relevant data. This may be quantitative data of either a financial or non-financial nature and it can be structured or unstructured.
  • Validating / Cleaning – again an underestimated area. Given the average organisation and their approach to data management even structured data may have inconsistencies or be incomplete. Therefore allowing enough time to check the “raw” information / data is critical.
  • Formatting – this step now gets it in the shape required to allow the necessary analysis to be performed.

The Analysis Phase

This is where the real magic starts to happen and where critical thinking is required.

  • Conducting – critical here is to keep in mind the deliverables (the questions to be answered). The analysis here can be of a quantitative and statistical nature, but it can also be of a more qualitative nature.
  • Making a report – turning the analysis into something digestible for the evaluators. Again, this step is often underestimated, and the insightful analysis conducted is, in the worst case, just copied and pasted into PowerPoint. Important here is to really think about the audience and think about the structure of the report what tool might best serve the purpose.
  • Reviewing the report – this is by far and away from the step most often overlooked. It feels like a luxury and when time is of the essence, the easiest one to put aside. Use someone who knows something about the topic but not too much and, critically, is not involved in the discussion. Look for critical and objective feedback on the impact of the report.

The Business Partnering Phase

The report is now ready and has been stress tested. The real test is now to come with it being presented to the relevant audience who have the responsibility to do something with it. In general, the three things that are important from an FP&A perspective are:

  • Communicate the recommendations – avoid a lot of time explaining the process and the context and the details. Check expectations are still the same regarding the brief and the deliverable and, if yes, go straight to any recommended plan of action / decision.
  • Discuss insights – this stage of the interaction should be about presenting the insights that have led to the recommendation. Allow this to be a real interaction, as the audience must have the freedom to critically challenge and, therefore, be convinced.
  • Supporting decision making – probably the most challenging part, where all the influencing and persuasive skills of FP&A will be called for. In the vast majority of cases, FP&A is not the decision-maker. It is important that if after the necessary time has been spent no decision is taken, that FP&A is clear on what the next steps are. It can be that the level of confidence is not yet high enough in the analysis. Or that further alternatives need to be explored.

The Control Phase

Finally, from an end to end perspective there is the control phase where FP&A has an important role to monitor outcomes and help capture learning.

  • Verify implementation – this is also easy to overlook. If the activities are not implemented, then benefits delivery is at risk. Therefore, a commitment to follow up on implementation status is key.
  • Measure outcomes – if clearly highlighted in the briefing document it needs to be followed up. It is therefore smart to think deeply early in the planning phase about how things and, in fact, whether outcomes can be measured. If not, a proxy should be explored.
  • Evaluate learning – where the task is of an important nature (materiality and / or newness), retroactive learning is important for both the Business and FP&A in their search to make this entire process more seamless and effective for future activities. 

A key focus of FP&A Transformation is to move from a current situation where too much time is spent downstream to more time spent on upstream activities. For example, a typical journey could look as follows:

Adopting an end to end process and drastically reducing time on collecting phase to invest elsewhere.

In summary:

I hope this 5-stage approach gives some ideas for FP&A on how to approach not every single operational task but definitely those tasks that are of high impact for the business they are supporting. Technology is a great facilitator in most phases – for example, Artificial Intelligence in Information Phase, Data Analytics in Analysis Phase, Data Visualisation in Partnering Phase and Dashboards in Control phase.
 

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Author's Articles

March 20, 2020

All functions have operational deliverables, with perhaps a very few exceptions like a Corporate Strategy function. Given this “daily business” that has to be conducted, it is logical that when attempting change risk rears its considerable head. The greater the change impact and ambition, the bigger the risk has to be taken into account on how to guarantee “business continuity”. FP&A is not exempt from this. 

February 27, 2020

Finance transformation is high on the agenda for the majority of finance departments. What is driving this? There are a number of push factors that are important.

February 14, 2020
FP&A Tags:

The challenges of running a modern business get tougher and tougher. Mainly externally driven challenges including regulation, increases in business complexity for example in the level of competition, the nature of competition, a more complex global supply chain, increases in the speed of change, in no small measure driven by the acceleration in computing and digital technologies. All this leads to a more uncertain and more volatile business environment.

January 30, 2020
FP&A Tags:

The process and tools designed with good intent many many years ago when the world was much simpler, the competitive landscape was more stable and where the scarce resource was financial capital, end up favouring the present to too high a degree at the expense of the future. In other words, it is likely to lead to incrementalism rather than boldness.

Pages